Eleni Fragkiadaki, Georgios Evangelidis. 2014. Review of the indirect citations paradigm: theory and practice of the assessment of papers, authors and journals. Scientometrics 99, 2 (May 2014)
The family of indicators presented in this paper includes indices created by taking into account not only the direct but also the indirect impact of citations and references. Three types of citation graphs are presented, namely, the Paper-Citation graph, the Author-Citation graphand the Journal-Citation graph, along with different methods for constructing them. In addition, the concept of generations of citations is examined in detail, again by presenting various methods for defining them found in the literature. Finally, a number of indirect indicators for papers, authors and journals are discussed, which among others, include PageRank, CiteRank, indirect h-index and the EigenFactor score.